This document consists of four sections. Section 1 introduces the Commonwealth Plan of Action for Gender Equality 2005-2015 (PoA), its background and its place in the Commonwealth’s overall framework and agenda for development, democracy and human rights. Section 2 outlines the achievements of the 1995 Plan of Action on Gender and Development and its 2000 Update1, identifies lessons learned and challenges to be addressed in the next decade, and highlights the Commonwealth’s areas of comparative advantage which underpin its work programme. Section 3 analyses the four critical areas for Commonwealth action covered by the PoA, and makes recommendations for strategic actions by member governments and the Secretariat in relation to these areas. Section 4 outlines how governments and the Secretariat will implement the recommendations in collaboration with partners and how accountability will be ensured through monitoring, evaluation and reporting.