The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the context in which the Royal Papua New Guinea Constabulary Development Project (RPNGCDP), Phase II and III, is being implemented, and the lessons learnt regarding effective gender mainstreaming strategies in this context. The paper reviews project initiatives that have been successful and others that have not achieved the expected results. The importance of understanding context when designing and implementing gender-related development activities is emphasised. To this end, the paper also looks at the impact of policy, social and cultural factors in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The project has been funded by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID), while ACIL Australia Pty Ltd has been contracted by AusAID to implement Phases II and III of the RPNGCDP. ACIL has been involved with the project since 1993.