This paper reports that in Tanah Papua (the western half of the island of New Guinea, currently comprising the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua), there was an HIV prevalence of 2.3% of survey participants, ranging from 0.6% in easily accessible coastal areas to 3% in the highlands. This makes the estimated HIV prevalence in Tanah Papua the second highest in the world outside Africa.
There was no significant difference in HIV prevalence between men and women. Of those surveyed, 9.2% were considered to have comprehensive knowledge of HIV, ranging from 5.7% of participants in the highlands to 12.1% of participants in easily accessible coastal sites. This is lower than the Indonesian national average of 11.1%.
Among those participants who reported extramarital sex in the previous 12 months, 16.5% of men said they had consistently used condoms during paid vaginal sex. The national target for consistent condom use by males during paid sex is 65%. Just 5.6% of men and 1.3% of women stated that they had consistently used condoms during sex with a casual partner.
The 2013 IBBS findings affirm the need for attention to Papuan gender identities and gender relations, especially how male sexualities and masculinities interface with new forms of education and work, and with the cultures and masculinities of Indonesian men.