This report is an update of the Government of Kiribati and UNICEF’s 2001 ‘Situation Analysis of Children and Women in Kiribati.’ Kiribati is a country of 33 atolls and low lying reef islands scattered along the equator in the central Pacific. The country is faced with significant problems of transportation and communication. The current population is around 93,000 and with an annual growth rate of around 2.3% – the population could easily double by 2013, presenting major social and economic implications. The level of development in Kiribati is one of the lowest in the region. There is uneven development and the two general patterns are the uneven distribution of income and resources and the hardship faced by households; and the general disadvantage of outer island communities relative to South Tarawa. Although extreme poverty or destitution is not common in Kiribati, many households now have difficulty meeting their basic needs.