This PhD research aims to uncover the determinants influencing health outcomes and investigates health service delivery in Papua New Guinea (PNG) within the context of women and their health. Despite extensive research on health and health service delivery in PNG over the past three decades, little or no improvement has been made to attain better health outcomes. Various factors which were found to contribute to PNG’s poor health outcomes, include poor financial management and resource allocation, complex institutional structures and challenges following government’s reform policies, lack of capacity, rugged geographical conditions and lack of essential infrastructure. These are mainly provider side factors with experiences of health service users largely understudied. The author’s research adopts qualitative data collection methods, including focus groups discussions, questionnaires, in-depth interviews, observations, body-mapping exercises and illness narratives to understand women and their health service usage, and health workers providing health care. Fieldwork was conducted in three geographically, linguistically, culturally and religiously diverse locations in PNG. Over 100 people participated, including health workers and women.